First, the fresh mountain of one’s relationships BP having Na consumption varied because of the energy consumption, suggesting you to definitely Na density could possibly get mirror the partnership that have BP top than absolute Na intake does
There was a significant 3-way interaction between Na intake, energy, and obesity status for SBP (P=0.033); for DBP, the 3-way interaction was not significant, but there was a significant interaction between energy intake and obesity (P=0.005). In stratified models, the association of Na with SBP was stronger at lower energy intake (higher Na density) than at higher energy intake (lower Na density) in both nonobese (interaction of Na with energy; P<0.001) and obese (interaction of Na with energy; P=0.028); the association of Na and DBP by energy intakes was similar (interaction of Na with energy, P=0.005 nonobese; P=0.049 obese). On the control diet at 2300 mg Na intake in the nonobese, SBP was 4.7 mm Hg (95% CI, 1.0, 8.5) higher at 2100 kcal compared with 3200 kcal (Figure 3A), and DBP was 3.1 mm Hg (95% CI, 0.7, 5.5) higher (Figure 3C). In obese at 2300 mg Na intake on the control diet, there were no differences in SBP (0.6 mm Hg; 95% CI, ?3.8 to 4.9; Figure 3B) or DBP (1.8 mm Hg; 95% CI, ?1.0 to 4.5; Figure 3D) between 2100 and 3200 kcal. On the DASH diet at 2300 mg Na, there were no significant differences in SBP at 2100 versus 3200 kcal regardless of obesity status (2.5 mm Hg; 95% CI, ?1.0 to 6.0 for nonobese and ?1.3 mm Hg; 95% CI, ?6.0 to 3.4 for obese). On the DASH diet at 2300 mg Na, DBP was higher at 2100 versus 3200 kcal in the nonobese (2.1 mm Hg; 95% CI, 0.1–4.4), but not in the obese (?0.3 mm Hg (95% CI, ?3.2 to 2.6).
Figure 3. Interaction of absolute Na intake and energy intake on blood pressure at 3 energy levels stratified by obesity status, indicating 3 levels of Na density (L, I, and H), among normal and overweight (body mass index [BMI] <30 kg/m 2 , A and C) and obese (BMI?30 kg/m 2 , B and D) participants on the control diet. The vertical line is drawn at 2300 mg absolute Na intake. Error bars represent ±1 SE. Results from mixed-effects models of continuous Na and energy, adjusted for age, sex, race, smoking, cohort, diet type (DASH [Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension] or control), clinical center, and carryover effects stratified by obesity status. https://datingranking.net/tr/pure-inceleme/ DBP indicates diastolic blood pressure; and SBP, systolic blood pressure.
So it research are presented to choose whether or not the relationships between Na and BP may differ with energy consumption. Numerous trick conclusions came up. 2nd, once the in earlier times reported, the result out of Na prevention was attenuated in the form from new Dash eating plan compared with the newest handle eating plan, recommending you to areas of diet plan plus influence the fresh BP response to changes in Na intake. 5,twelve,thirteen As well as attenuating the newest BP a reaction to Na, this new Dashboard diet and lower BP, in line with evidence one to aspects of eating plan, also an elevated consumption away from potassium, on their own straight down BP. fourteen 3rd, the new connection off Na having time intake towards the BP persisted when the new analyses was in fact stratified by the race, except for DBP certainly whites. Last, having stratification by carrying excess fat status, large differences in BP because of the energy consumption was indeed observed some of those who have been nonobese weighed against heavy.
Although the Dashboard–Na data regulated Na thickness, and not absolute Na intake, the first result of this demonstration was indeed translated with regards to Na intake rather than Na thickness. The deficiency of reporting abilities from the Na thickness get mirror the brand new lack of investigation for the energy consumption in many training. Assessment of matchmaking away from Na thickness which have death inside the observational studies have given combined overall performance. The analysis away from Na density that have mortality regarding the NHANES II follow-right up analysis (Federal Health insurance and Diet Examination Questionnaire) and you will of NHANES III suggested an enthusiastic inverse relationship away from Na and you may cardiovascular illnesses mortality, even in the event considering Na regarding time consumption. 15,16 During these education, yet not, Na and energy intake was indeed estimated using one twenty four-hours remember, which is not sufficient to imagine a person’s usual fat loss intake due to highest date-to-time variation in Na intake and energy consumption as well as their ratio. Subsequent, opportunity consumption try implausibly low in each other studies. You are able your observed relationship ranging from Na consumption and you can cardiovascular disease mortality tends to be explained by the less than-reporting prejudice, which is, in the event the over weight anyone declaration lower Na occurrence and are generally probably be so you can perish of cardiovascular illnesses, the newest noticed dating could possibly get mirror new impact from obesity as opposed to diet. The newest facts away from a possible cohort investigation (n=716, 19-12 months go after-up) aligns toward outcome of the current analysis, with claimed frequency of cardio incidents two times as high one of those throughout the high rather than low quartile out-of Na thickness (22% versus eleven%, respectively; P=0.005) according to 7-day eating info gathered on standard. 17